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A thing that's often overlooked is the fact that marketing and psychology go hand-in-hand.
Informing yourself of some essential psychological tips, tricks, and hacks can help you better read your client. Knowing more about the psychology of your client gives you a higher likelihood of closing the deal. Every one of your customers is different, and therefore you can't always use a one-size-fits-all approach when it comes to selling a product or a service. Other types of personalities require different kinds of attention.
Some techniques work across a broad spectrum of customers; others don’t. So here it is, ladies and gentlemen: Psychology 101 blended with sales hacks. I'll start by addressing the main hacks of reading your clients and understanding the different personalities and buyers you might encounter. Afterward, the specific tactics and hacks to use on these clients will be addressed, such as tricks to interact/build rapport with your customers and sales techniques that get you closer to your product or service's actual sale.
To get the full potential out of your sales, it's essential to know who you're talking to. First, you need to understand The Merrill-Reid Method.
The Merrill-Reid method is an efficient way of profiling someone, which in this case, is your customer. This behavioral model identifies four key identifiable personality types; Analyticals, Drivers, Amiables, and Expressive.
Being able to pick up on cues to identify what type of personality you are selling to allows you to adapt your sales techniques. Optimizing your chances of converting a lead into a customer is the name of the game. To sum up the personality-themed tactic, you need to understand the four types of buyers and shape your pitch as you go.
This kind of customer tends to be methodical and cautious. To win over this personality type, you need to make sure you have all your facts straight. Be ready to answer any question they might have, with attention to detail.
Driver personalities will convey a desire to hone in on one thing only: the transaction to be made. Efficiency is key here, meaning no dillydallying – answer questions they may have, but get straight to the point. Driver personality types focus primarily on their satisfaction. It means when selling your product, make it abundantly clear how their level of satisfaction will rise. Such things as mentioning other people’s happiness will, for the most part, be disregarded. If you do say prior clients, focus on profits yielded as opposed to emotional satisfaction.
These types of buyers are calmer and more anchored, and with this type of person, you need to be patient.
Trying to seal the deal too soon with someone like this can pressure them and push them away. Instead, constantly try to make sure you are both on the same page. Do this by asking questions, reassuring them, mentioning reviews from other customers, etc.
Expressive personalities are very 'out there' with both their words and their ideas. To win them over, you need to be zealous and match their enthusiasm.
Tapping into their emotions is more important than showing an array of stats for this type of personality. Expressive personalities care about what you think, too. This means that you need to be as empathetic as possible and try to personally connect with this category as much as possible.
So why does this sales tactic work? Being able to identify different personality types allows you to customize customer experiences and optimize communication. As straightforward as it sounds, being verbose and dawdling with a customer who is more of a driver personality could potentially cost you the whole deal.
So why wouldn’t you try it?
Key Take-Aways From Using The Merrill-Reid Method
Another way to approach your client is by trying to identify what type of buyer they are. Research emanating from neuroeconomics identifies three main types of buyers; Tightwads, spendthrifts, and average spenders.
They’ll do anything but spend money – what matters most for these clients is saving money.
According to research, almost one in four customers you will approach fits into this category. With these kinds of buyers, the key is to present them with facts and figures. Using empathy and eye contact is not going to do much with someone this reluctant to give up their money. Persuasion will happen by hitting them with the facts.
Spendthrifts are the definition of impulsive buyers. Whereas tightwads are all about that saving, saving, saving, spendthrifts want to spend, spend, and spend.
Almost the exact opposite advice applies to these kinds of buyers. Make that eye contact, nod, engage, use anecdotes – anything to appeal to their emotion. Unfortunately, the number of people that fit into this category is only about 15% of buyers.
It is the majority of the population (approximately 60%).
Average spenders will usually have a rough idea of a budget, but not as loose as spendthrifts and not as tight as tightwads. You have to mix it up with these kinds of buyers. Present both facts and figures at the same time as showing empathy and emotion in general.
Knowing these three kinds of buyers will tell you roughly what ballpark you’re playing in and can affect your marketing strategies for the better.
As the infamous character, Don Draper said, “it’s easy to overlook who you are speaking to because of your own presumptions.”
Your customer will almost always indicate what type of client they are. But it's easy to ignore it as a seller, so try to fight the urge to steamroll through your pitch. Don’t project what you want them to think but instead, let them show you who they are. It can be crucial! Different types of customers will respond differently to your various sales techniques.
Understanding what kind of client they are - tightwad, spendthrift, or average spender - will be essential for pragmatic marketing approaches.
By mirroring and active listening, you engage with the customer differently and increase the possibility of pulling off the sale.
Mirroring is when someone imitates or copies your body language. Mirroring sends the signal that you and your customer are on the same wavelength.
The synchronicity of some movements subconsciously makes your customers view you in a more friendly manner because you ‘act’ the same. Here are some examples of body language you can mirror:
Your counterpart is syncing up with your non-verbal messaging to try and align with your communication. Mirroring also works for verbal communication, such as picking up on similar words or expressions, meaning you can implement this technique even on a phone call. I'll get back to this later in the section on echoing.
If someone starts using the same hand gestures as you, it means they’re making an effort to acclimate to your needs. It is a GREAT sign!
Mirroring's effect is that the customer feels like you, the seller, are more likeable and like-minded.
This simple tactic makes the prospect of investing in your product more attainable, with the customer feeling more connected to you and, thereby, the product. Building a rapport with your customer is just as important as actually trying to sell the product. Only through building a connection with the customer does the sale become more likely.
Active listening is a method to understand your client’s wishes and explicitly show that you understand their needs. The main guiding points to be an active listener are:
Active listening shows your customer that you're taking their needs seriously and are empathetic to these needs and wishes as well. This listening method might also teach you more about your client than you already thought you knew. While it may be hard to avoid commenting here and there when a potential customer is speaking, remain silent - but engaged! Active listening is crucial to comprehending and appreciating a client’s potential concerns or thoughts.
Hearing and listening are two different things and must be differentiated. Hearing is passive, and listening is active.
Listening is an effective means of understanding your client because it does two things:
Flaunt absolutely any proof you have that shows others like your product or service. This tactic is beneficial for many obvious reasons; It clearly shows that what you're offering is approved by others. It encourages both new and repeat customers, and it reassures your customers.
Another benefit of social proof is that customers may subconsciously put your product on a pedestal over your competition. If you provide evidence that people approve of your product or service, but your competition doesn’t provide any such evidence, this can give you a one-up.
It works because it gives the client confidence that they will thumbs up the product like everyone else.
Imagine going on Amazon to buy a new fridge, and you're faced with two fridges at the same price. BUT, one of them has, on average, one-star reviews and the other four stars. Intuitively, it makes much more sense to be drawn to the fridge with four stars. Evidence of likability is fuel for buying.
Echoing is picking up phrases, analogies, metaphors and repeating them back without being cued up. Echoing is similar to mirroring but limited to only verbal communication.
An example could be using a specific analogy, like "farming", to describe a process, and the customer continues using the same metaphor. E.g., if you say "it's like field rotation for growing crops", and your customer later uses the expression "planting seeds". They may even copy your words verbatim, like using generic phrases, such as "interesting" or "fascinating" or "brilliant”. Maybe your customer will even mimic entire sentences! According to academic research, it is a GOOD sign that your customer comprehends what you’re saying. Echoing can work both ways, i.e., a customer can pick up on your phrases, or you can pick up on your customer’s expressions. Both are cues of a healthy rapport flourishing between the two of you, based on solid communication.
Verbal mimicking happens almost innately, and it's a signal that you and the person you are speaking to are on the same wavelength. Empathy is an important factor here, as speaking similarly to your customer indicates that you understand them and their needs. Intuitively, you get along better with people when there's less of a social disparage, making it easier to get ahead and openly discuss matters - in this case, your product.
Comparison is a fundamental and undeniable practice that almost everyone is guilty of – a lot of the time.
This comparison can be utilized in marketing by creating reference points and placing what you’re selling at the center. When a customer is looking to invest or purchase, they compare each provider's products. It means that it's not necessarily about each product's inherent value but how that product performs better than the other. Therefore, it's crucial to know exactly how your product or service outperforms your competition’s as a seller. Customers want you to tell them why your product is unique or ‘better than the rest’.
The comparison allows you to focus on marketing strategies that highlight exactly those areas where your product is unique or outperforms others. It’s all relative!
For example, one of the biggest supermarkets in the UK is Sainsbury’s. Sainsbury’s launched a “same price, different values” campaign in response to Tesco's aggressive price comparison campaigns. In this campaign, there was a strong focus on the higher quality food sources at Sainsbury’s.
This campaign highlighted key unique areas wherein Sainsbury’s outperformed Tesco, such as better fair trade practices.
To understand who you’re selling to, you need to be one thing above anything else – empathetic.
You have a better chance of selling that product by actively trying to understand why a prospect is seeking a product or service. Empathy mapping operationalizes this concept of empathy by constructing four quadrants within which one can evaluate customer experiences.
The quadrants pertain to what the customer said, did, though, and felt (shown in the figure below). The purpose of evaluating all of these four different aspects is to deduce why, sometimes, expressed interest in a product does not always lead to the purchase of the said product.
What a customer tells you can fundamentally differ from what they're feeling, which is why empathy mapping aims to unravel these unexpressed conflicts. It's crucial to understand that you are the middleman between the client and the product. The closer you can get to the client, i.e., the more empathetic you can be, the closer you get to convert that lead into a customer.
Being empathetic is an effective method because empathy can help buy a product feel less like an impersonal transaction for the customer and more like a productive interaction - with the successful purchase of your product. Empathy mapping also means that you're more discerning of how your client’s feelings may juxtapose to their actions. It means you are more likely to act upon certain situations with more efficiency and insightfulness, potentially resulting in fewer of these clashes between silent intentions and expressed actions.
Uncertainty Reduction Theory claims that uncertainty and risk associated with someone are reduced when more information is acquired on this hypothetical person.
Once people have more information on each other, predictability arises regarding behavior which acts as a reassurance mechanism. The same sentiment can be transferred to a product; the more information a customer has on a product, the less uncertainty. It means the customer can trust that the product’s claims match reality.
Playing the devil’s advocate is one way of making sure your customer has all the information they need on a particular product. It doesn't mean you have to question everything your client says incessantly. Instead, raise fair and valid points when a legitimate query is raised. It's the ultimate reassurance tool.
If a client worries, dispel it. Tell them why it doesn’t have to be an issue using stats, previous examples, or anything to eliminate that uncertainty. Even when customers don’t raise a query or signal concern, anticipate what concern might be and address it.
It shows that you’ve thought about the client, linking back to the importance of being empathetic.
Providing as much information as possible reassures customers that what you can supply them is worth it. At the same time, playing the devil’s advocate also dispels any concerns they may have.
Trial closing is about testing the waters with the client and making sure they are comfortable. Essentially, it’s a litmus test to discern whether the client is ready to seal the deal or not and where the main issues arise.
That’s why listening is so integral to this sales technique. Trial closing is a subtle way of driving the dialogue to the point of sale whilst getting verbal consent from the customer the entire time. Trial closing techniques are often framed as questions – this ensures the clients are given a front seat with the seller, with one foot on the pedal the whole time.
Trial closing is the epitome of two-way dialogue: you ask a question and wait for a reply. It also pushes the client to ask more questions and get more comfortable with the idea of being sold. Patience is the key here.
Trial closing is an effective technique because the client doesn’t feel like being pushed to close.
Sealing the deal can scare a potential customer away because it can come off as aggressive. On the other hand, trial closing allows for a smoother process wherein the client feels more in control. Asking your client questions is a key indication that you care, not just about the purchase of the product itself but also about your client's satisfaction after the purchase has taken place. Here are some examples of trial closing questions:
Trial closing can help you, and your customer gets on the same wavelength. Don’t you agree?
A classic and effective tool to engage a customer and find out more about them is generating an information gap of some sort.
To sell a product, you need the client to know what that product is... but leaving a little to the imagination can help. Generating an information gap stimulates and prompts customers to get in touch and ask questions. It's this curiosity that you can grasp as a seller to ensure higher sales. This technique can work for both sales on- and offline.
A product is more than the product itself – there are also the effects of buying that product. So if a prospective buyer already knows everything about your product, don’t keep telling them facts they already know. Talk to them about how their experience be using the product - something they wouldn’t necessarily know from reading product descriptions. This links back to constructing reference points – tell the customer how your product is unique or creates unique opportunities and experiences: your unique selling point (USP).
An information gap leads to a curiosity gap. It means that offering compelling information without giving everything away will make a customer want to find out more. A clear example of this in practice is the use of alluring headlines to pull in readers.
Lizard brain refers to the section of your brain that activates primal instincts, aka fight or flight.
According to research in neuroscience, this part of the brain (triune) has the power to command the other parts (limbic and cortex, to be more specific). One emotion works best at activating the lizard brain: fear. It is not advice to go and scare your customers, but to make sure they understand what they’d be missing out on if they didn’t invest in your product. Nudge them in the direction of fear, make them realize potential problems they’d encounter by not buying your service – but make sure to balance this.
Scare your customers, but don’t petrify them, and gear them a little towards pain, but not torture. If you are too subtle with this tactic, your customer won’t pick up on the signals. If you’re too overt, you’ll push them away.
This tactic makes your customer focus on the costs of not investing in your product.
This subconsciously pushes your clients to avoid the pain of not investing, and customers will be much more tempted to buy your product.
This phenomenon is known as loss aversion. An obvious example of triggering the lizard brain is using tools such as countdowns on your website, perhaps a countdown of time until a sale ends.
It creates a clear sense of urgency, increasing the chances of converting leads into buyers.
Buying a car can seem like one massive expense and scare a customer away. Leasing a car, not so much.
The foot in the door technique utilities this kind of thinking by starting with one seemingly small expense (leasing a car) and building up to the big purchase (buying the car).
This sales method is effective for several reasons. Firstly, it reduces the blot of the customer's expense, or at least it perceives it as less of a blow. Secondly, it's helpful in building a rapport with your client if you implement this technique in person.
Simply engaging in more conversation with who you are selling to can bring that person closer to the thought of buying the product. Closer than if you had just hit them with the hard sell.
FITD is all about making your customers feel like they owe you, the seller, something.
For example, an email subscription request is seemingly small, increasing the chances of persuading customers to invest in your products at a later stage.
By asking for an email, you are directly engaging your customers, prompting them to comply with a potential more significant request (the purchase of your product) after.
There's the foot in the door technique, but there’s also the door in the face technique.
Psychologically speaking, making an initial unreasonably large request increases the chances of a second, smaller, accepted request.
Observe. Imagine you own a mobile company, and a customer asks you, the seller, for assistance in purchasing a new phone. You: “Hi there, are you interested in purchasing the new X10000-360 supersonic gold-encrusted mobile? It’s only $5000 upfront”... That’ll probably be a solid no.
BUT WAIT! Follow up with this:
“No problem, but have you considered the recent X100 2.0 model of the mobile? This one is only $500 upfront”....... Do you see what you just did there?
The DITF technique works due to a nifty psychological principle called compliance.
The feeling of needing to comply stems from that initial denial of the irrationally large first request.
Denying the first request induces a feeling of guilt in prospects, significantly increasing the odds that they’ll feel too embarrassed to say no a second time.
It’s instinct to want to be viewed in a positive light by others. Saying no two times can be seen as compromising this positive perception. It means the urge to agree to the second request will be strong, much stronger than if there hadn’t been that initial, large request.
It’s a basic human instinct to want to give something in return for something given to you.
This means that offering your client something concrete will compel them into feeling they owe it to you to invest in what you’re selling.
It is a similar sentiment to the foot in the door technique, as discussed above.
What you offer your customer can be something as simple as a free trial, a reduction in price, a loyalty program, a free guide – it depends on the product you're selling.
Listed below are some concrete examples of reciprocity:
Giving your customers something small is an incredibly simple method that will make your customers view you in a more generous light. This small gesture will incentive your customers to purchase what you’re selling. That being said, reciprocity only works if you make it clear that you expect nothing in return. The whole premise is to make your client feel comfortable and view you as generous.
Offering a product for a free or discounted rate subconsciously encourages customers to want to repay you by buying your product.
A great example of this sales technique is offering a free guide. Check out the example below!
Customers will be more likely to frame you in a considerate light by offering something as simple as a free guide. And what does this lead to? The purchase of your product.
15 psychology hacks to convert more leads into customers. That’s what this post was about. Just wanted to remind you.
There are different types of customers. You should try to label their personalities and their spending habits to customize your selling techniques.
BUT, labeling or categorizing a customer doesn’t quite go far enough to ensure the sale is made. What you also need to do is adapt your actions and sales techniques.
The #1 strategy (also the easiest), no matter the customer, is LISTENING. Always listen to your customer:
Listening ties together a bunch of the psychology hacks and tactics discussed in this post.
And what do ALL of these strategies have in common? They bring you closer to your goal of selling a service or product. And that’s the main goal at the end of the day, right?
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